From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term developed country is used to describe countries that have a high level of development according to some criteria. Which criteria, and which countries are classified as being developed, is a contentious issue and is surrounded by fierce debate. Economic criteria have tended to dominate discussions. One such criterion is income per capita; countries with high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita would thus be described as developed countries. Another economic criterion is industrialization; countries in which the tertiary and quaternary sectors of industry dominate would thus be described as developed. More recently another measure, the Human Development Index, which combines with an economic measure, national income, with other measures, indices for life expectancy and education has become prominent. This criterion would define developed countries as those with a very high (HDI) rating. However, many anomalies exist when determining "developed" status by whichever measure is used.
Countries not fitting such definitions are classified as developing countries.
Terms similar to developed country include advanced country, industrialized country, more developed country (MDC), more economically developed country (MEDC), Global North country, first world country, and post-industrial country. The term industrialized country may be somewhat ambiguous, as industrialization is an ongoing process that is hard to define. The term MEDC is one used by modern geographers to specifically describe the status of the countries referred to: more economically developed. The first industrialised country was England, followed by Belgium (Wallonia), Germany, United States, France, the remainder of the United Kingdom and other Western European countries. According to economists such as Jeffrey Sachs, however, the current divide between the developed and developing world is largely a phenomenon of the 20th century.
Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the United Nations, defined a developed country as follows. " A developed country is one that allows all its citizens to enjoy a free and healthy life in a safe environment." But according to the United Nations Statistics Division,
- There is no established convention for the designation of "developed" and "developing" countries or areas in the United Nations system.
And it notes that
- The designations "developed" and developing" are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgement about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.
The UN also notes
- In common practice, Japan in Asia, Canada and the United States in northern America, Australia and New Zealand in Oceania, and Europe are considered "developed" regions or areas. In international trade statistics, the Southern African Customs Union is also treated as a developed region and Israel as a developed country; countries emerging from the former Yugoslavia are treated as developing countries; and countries of eastern Europe and of the Commonwealth of Independent States (code 172) in Europe are not included under either developed or developing regions.
According to the classification from IMF before April 2004, all the countries of Eastern Europe (including Central European countries which still belongs to "Eastern Europe Group" in the UN institutions) as well as the former Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) countries in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan) and Mongolia, were not included under either developed or developing regions, but rather were referred to as "countries in transition"; however they are now widely regarded (in the international reports) as "developing countries". In the 21st century, the original Four Asian Tigers which are the regions (Hong Kong), and the countries  Taiwan, Singapore and South Korea) are considered "developed" region or areas, along with Cyprus, Israel, and Slovenia, considered "newly developed countries".
Human Development Index
The UN HDI is a statistical measure that gauges a country's level of human development. While there is a strong correlation between having a high HDI score and a prosperous economy, the UN points out that the HDI accounts for more than income or productivity. Unlike GDP per capita or per capita income, the HDI takes into account how income is turned "into education and health opportunities and therefore into higher levels of human development." A few examples are Italy and the United States. Despite a relatively large difference in GDP per capita, both countries rank roughly equal in term of overall human development. Since 1980, Norway (2001-2006 and 2009), Japan (1990-91 and 1993), Canada (1992 and 1994-2000) and Iceland (2007-08) have had the highest HDI score. Countries with a score of over 0.800 are considered to have a "high" standard of human development. The top 38 countries have scores ranging from 0.902 in Malta to 0.971 in Norway.
Many countries listed by IMF or CIA as "advanced" (as of 2009), possess an HDI over 0.9 (as of 2007). Many countries possessing an HDI of 0.9 and over (as of 2007), are also listed by IMF or CIA as "advanced" (as of 2009). Thus, many "advanced economies" (as of 2009) are characterized by an HDI score of 0.9 or higher (as of 2007).
The latest index was released on October 5, 2009 and covers the period up to 2007. The following are the 38 countries classified as possessing a "Very high human development" with an HDI at or above 0.900.
Other lists of Developed Countries
Only three institutions have produced lists of "developed countries". The three institutions and their lists are the UN list (shown above), the CIA list and the FTSE Group's list, whose list is not included because its association of developed countries with countries with both high incomes and developed markets is not deemed as directly relevant here. However many institutions have created lists which are sometimes referred to when people are discussing developed countries. The IMF identifies 34 "advanced economies", The OECD, also widely known as the 'developed countries club'  has 30 members. The World Bank identifies 66 "high income countries". The EIU's Quality-of-life survey and a list of countries with welfare states are also included here. The criteria for using all these lists and for countries' inclusion on these lists are often not properly spelt out, and several of these lists are based on old data.
IMF advanced economies
The CIA has a modified version of an old version of the IMF's list of Advanced Economies. The CIA notes that the IMF's Advanced Economies list "would presumably also cover" some smaller countries. They are:
|• File:Flag of Andorra.svg Andorra||• File:Flag of the Faroe Islands.svg Faroe Islands||• File:Flag of Monaco.svg Monaco||• File:Flag of Bermuda.svg Bermuda||• File:Coat of arms of the Vatican.svg Holy See||• File:Flag of Liechtenstein.svg Liechtenstein|
Development Assistance Committee members
There are 24 members—selected 23 OECD member countries and the European Commission—in the Development Assistance Committee, a group of the world's major donor countries that discuss issues surrounding development aid and poverty reduction in developing countries. As of 2010[update], the following OECD member countries are DAC members:
High-income OECD members
There are 27 High-income OECD members, although there are three other OECD members (Mexico, Poland and Turkey) that are not high-income members. These countries are listed as upper-middle-income economies. As of 2010, the High-income OECD membership is as follows:
21 countries in Europe:
2 countries in Asia:
|• File:Flag of Japan.svg Japan|
|• File:Flag of South Korea.svg South Korea|
2 countries in North America:
|• File:Flag of Canada.svg Canada|
|• File:Flag of the United States.svg United States|
2 countries in Oceania:
|• File:Flag of Australia.svg Australia|
|• File:Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand|
World Bank high-income economies
"High income economies" are defined by the World Bank as countries with a Gross National Income per capita of $11,906 or more in 2008. According to the United Nations definition some high income countries may also be developing countries. Thus, a high income country may be classified as either developed or developing.
High-income economy not classified by World Bank:
Below is a "summary" table which has been produced by Wikipedia editors as a summary of the information on this page. It should be used with caution. Different data sources for the different lists are of different vintages and some of the lists are based on each other. Readers are warned that it is not intended that the "all" column should be used to indicate that those countries on more lists are more developed than those on less.
|HIE OECD||High-income OECD members||DAC||Development Assistance Committee members|
|CIA AE||CIA's The World Factbook, Advanced economies||IMF AE||International Monetary Fund, Advanced economies|
|WB HIE||World Bank, High-income economies||HDI≥0.9||Human Development Index at or above 0.9|
|QoL Top 30||EIU, Quality-of-life index Top 30 countries|
- ^ Sachs, Jeffrey (2005). The End of Poverty. The Penguin Press. ISBN 1-59420-045-9.
- ^ http://www.unescap.org/unis/press/G_05_00.htm
- ^ a b "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings (footnote C)". United Nations Statistics Division. revised 17 October 2008. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49regin.htm#ftnc. Retrieved 2008-12-30.
- ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/methods/m49/m49.htm
- ^ a b c d e http://www.businesspme.com/uk/articles/economics/78/East-Asian-Tigers-.html
- ^ a b c d e f g h i IMF Advanced Economies List. World Economic Outlook, Database—WEO Groups and Aggregates Information, October 2009.
- ^ http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1018.html
- ^ http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/98c62f1c-850f-11dd-b148-0000779fd18c.html
- ^ "UN. (2006). Human Development Report.". http://hdr.undp.org/hdr2006/statistics/flash/statistics_hdi.cfm. Retrieved 2007-07-07.
- ^ "UN. (2008). Human Development Index: A Statistical Update.". http://hdr.undp.org/en/mediacentre/news/title,15493,en.html. Retrieved 2008-12-22.
- ^ The official classification of "advanced countries" is originally made by the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The IMF list doesn't deal with non-IMF members. The CIA intends to follow IMF list but adds few countries which aren't dealt with by IMF due to their not being IMF members. By May 2001, the advanced country list of the CIA was more comprehensive than the original IMF list. However, since May 2001, three additional countries (Cyprus, Malta and Slovenia) have been added to the original IMF list, thus leaving the CIA list not updated.
- ^ Namely sovereign states, i.e. excluding Macau: In 2003 the government of Macau calculated its HDI as being 0.909 (the UN does not calculate Macau's HDI); In January 2007, the People's Daily reported (from China Modernization Report 2007): "In 2004...Macau...had reached the level of developed countries". However, Macau is not recognized by any international organisation as a developed/advanced territory, while the UNCTAD organisaion (of the UN), as well as the CIA, classify Macao as a "developing" territory. The World Bank classifies Macau as a high income economy (along with developed economies as well as with few developing economies).
- ^ 
- ^ a b CIA (2008). "Appendix B. International Organizations and Groups. World Factbook.". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/appendix/appendix-b.html. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
- ^ http://www.ftse.com/Indices/Country_Classification/Downloads/FTSE_Country_Classification_Sept_09_update.pdf The Developed Countries Glossary entry reads: "The following countries are classified by FTSE as developed countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium/Luxembourg, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and the United States."
- ^ http://www.hungarianquarterly.com/no160/104.shtml
- ^ http://www.indianexpress.com/old/ie/daily/19971214/34850733.html
- ^ http://www.esri.go.jp/en/forum1/minute/minute26-e.html
- ^ World Economic Outlook, International Monetary Fund, October 2009, second paragraph, line 9–10.
- ^ http://www.oecd.org/document/38/0,3343,en_2649_34603_1893350_1_1_1_1,00.html
- ^ DAC website >> "The DAC in Dates", On the DAC's self-description, see the introductory letter. On other events, refer to the relevant section by date.
- ^ http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMDK:20421402~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00.html
- ^ "World Bank, Country Classification". http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMDK:20420458~menuPK:64133156~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00.html. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
- ^ "UN. (2005). UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics.". http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/tdstat30_enfr.pdf. Retrieved 2007-07-09.
- ^ World Bank - Country Groups. Accessed on July 11, 2009
- ^ World Bank - Country Classification. Accessed on October 12, 2008, last paragraph, line 4.
- ^ Country classification table, World Bank. Accessed on line December 22, 2008.
- ^ The world in 2005: The Economist Intelligence Unit's quality-of-life index, The Economist. Accessed on line January 8, 2007.
- IMF (advanced economies)
- The Economist (quality of life survey)
- The World Factbook (developed countries)
- United Nations Statistics Division (definition)
- United Nations Statistics Division (developed regions)
- World Bank (high-income economies)
bs:Razvijene zemlje ca:País desenvolupat ceb:Ugmad nga nasod cs:Vyspělá země da:Iland de:Industriestaat et:Arenenud riik el:Ανεπτυγμένη χώρα es:País desarrollado eo:Industrilandoj fa:کشورهای توسعه یافته fr:Pays développés gl:País desenvolvido ko:선진국 hi:औद्योगिक देश id:Negara maju it:Paesi sviluppati he:מדינה מפותחת nl:Ontwikkelde landen ja:先進国 no:Industriland nn:Industriland pt:País desenvolvido ru:Развитые страны sah:Сайдыбыт дойдулар simple:Developed country sk:Vyspelá krajina fi:Teollisuusmaa sv:Industriland th:ประเทศพัฒนาแล้ว uk:Розвинені країни vi:Nước công nghiệp zh:已開發國家